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Glossary
Today's advanced technological jargon uses numerous abbreviations and specialised expressions. Please click on a term to obtain an explanation.

 ANSI
 Automatic White Balance
 AutoScan
 AutoSync
 Back Projection
 Bandwidth
 Beamer
 CCD
 CE
 Cinch
 Compatibility
 Depth of Colour
 Digital
 DLP™
 Dolby Surround
 Dot
 Electronic Image Inversion
 Electronic Keystone Correction
 Electronic Scaling
 Freeze
 GS
 HDTV
 HiFi Surround Sound
 Horizontal Frequency
 Image Data
 Image Points
 Image Refresh Rate
 Infrared Remote Control
 IQ S
 Kensington Lock
 Keystone Correction
 LCD
 Luma / Lumen
 Magnify
 Micro Lenses
 Motor Zoom
 Multi Standard
 Noise
 NTP
 NTSC
 Optical Keystone Correction
 OSD
 PAL
 PAL Plus
 PCMCIA
 Pixel Datarate
 Plug & Play
 Polysilicon Technology
 Power Focussing
 Resizing
 Resolution
 RGB
 RS 232C
 Saturation
 SECAM
 SHP lamp
 SVGA
 S-VHS
 SXGA
 Synchronisation
 Tracking
 UHB / UHP
 USB
 UXGA
 Variable Focus Objective
 Vertical Frequency
 VGA
 Workstation
 XGA
 YCC
 Zoom


ANSI: Abbreviation for American National Standards Institute. ANSI is an American organisation (and a member of the ISO, or International Organization for Standardization), which produces uniform regulations and standards and monitors compliance with them. ANSI standards are recognised worldwide. The standards for calculating display screen brightness in lumen are particularly interesting for projection technology.


Automatic White Balance: This automatic function adjusts the displayed colours of the available light so that a natural, neutral colour reproduction is achieved under a wide range of different light sources (sunlight, filament lamps and fluorescent lamps, etc.).


AutoScan: This function automatically synchronises the data video projector with the display screen mode of the computer and at the same time corrects the tracking (frame width) and H-phase (fine adjustment for optimum frame width).


AutoSync: See AutoScan.


Back Projection: Back Projection (or rear projection) enables very space-saving accommodation of a data video projector. The projector displays the image from behind onto a transparent screen. The projector rotates the image automatically so that the viewer in front of the screen experiences the image the right side up.


Bandwidth: Bandwidth is given in MHz. It describes the speed at which the data can be transmitted via a medium, e.g. a data video projector, in the form of bits per unit of time. For example, a data video projector with a bandwidth of 140 MHz can project data from workstations.


Beamer: American expression for projector (from beam).


CCD: Abbreviation of (Charged Coupled Devices) CCDs are a layout of minute light-sensitive elements. Each element detects the quantity of incidental light and stores it as an electrical charge. CCDs are used as a recording unit in the form of chips or line sensors in digital cameras, scanners, etc. There are different CCD element layouts. The most well known are linear CCDs, which are used in many flat bed and slide scanners. Linear CCDs record each complete line and not individual points. The elements of a surface CCD on the other hand are arranged in a matrix.


CE: (CommunautĂ© EuropĂ©enne) French for European Community (or EC) and a mark of conformity. The manufacturer or importer of a product attaches this to the product or its packaging, thereby documenting compliance with the safety regulations of the European Union.


Cinch: Cinch connections are used for sound and video transmissions. The cinch socket for video is often marked with a yellow ring. The connections for the left-hand and right-hand sound channels are usually white and red respectively.


Compatibility: Compatibility refers to a standard or a standardised construction, which enables the unproblematic exchange of data or mode of functioning of appliances.


Depth of Colour: The quantity of information with which the colour of an image point or pixel can be described. It is possible to display 256 shades of colour with 8 bit (necessary for high quality reproductions).


Digital: A type of representation and processing that uses data from the binary system. Values that consist of individual discrete steps, as opposed to continuously varying (analogue) data.


DLP™: Abbreviation of Digital Light Processing™. It is a digital, reflective technology, which was developed by Texas Instruments. DLP provides an imaging quality that satisfies the highest standards. These include natural colours, even graphic display. Data is displayed without colour convergence problems, as the technology manages with only one transmitter.


Dolby Surround: This sound technique was developed by the American, Ray Dolby. It is a system that works with 5 loudspeakers. The loudspeakers are set up in front of and behind the place where the sound is to be heard. A decoder or a corresponding amplifier allocates the signals to the correct loudspeakers.


Dot: The raster or grid point used in printing technology, in digital imaging also the image point or pixel of the monitor. The essential factor is the spacing between the dots. These are usually between 0.2 and 0.3 millimetres. The finer the dot spacing of the monitor, the sharper or clearer the graphic display.


Electronic Image Inversion: In data video projection the image is adjusted electronically so that it is the right way round. This is important for rear projection and projection from the ceiling.


Electronic Keystone Correction: If the presentation device projects upwards at an angle to the screen (not at right angles), the image is distorted in a trapezium shape. Modern data video projector electronics can be used to correct the distortion. The image points and pixels are compressed and the image is slightly reduced in size. See Keystone Correction and Optical Keystone Correction.


Electronic Scaling: If a data video projector detects a computer mode that doesn't equate to the original resolution of the projector, it converts the mode. The aim is usually to achieve a display that fills the largest possible area of the screen or monitor. Data video projectors for business use often provide the comfort feature of recalculating the mode so that the display quality remains optimal.


Freeze: A data video projection term, also called the still picture of frame function. The projected image can be fixed at any time, for example to enter data into the computer that is not to be shown to the viewer until a later point in time.


GS: (GeprÜfte Sicherheit) German for Verified or Audited Safety. The GS mark is placed on a product or product packaging if the TÜV (German Technical Inspectorate) or another approved institute tests the product type and determines that it fulfils the prescribed safety requirements.


HDTV: Abbreviation for High Definition TeleVision. This technique transmits high definition television pictures (1,000 to 1,200 lines).


HiFi Surround Sound: This is a system that simulates surround sound. In contrast to Dolby surround it only uses two channels and achieves the impression of surround sound using phase displacements.


Horizontal Frequency: This frequency is measured in kHz and indicates how many lines per second are triggered. Data video projectors use their own horizontal frequency. The details given in the brochures refer to the frequencies of computers and video sources that can be handled by the projector.


Image Data: Mostly standardised formats for storing digital images. This means that the image data can be integrated in different programs, independent of the application and platform used.


Image Points: Also called pixels, these are the smallest possible imaging elements in the digital display of images.


Image Refresh Rate: This frequency is measured in hertz (Hz) and indicates the number of images that can be set up per second. Data video projectors have their own refresh rate. The details given in brochures therefore usually refer to the signal frequency of the computer or the video source, which the projector can convert.


Infrared Remote Control: This is a remote control that uses infrared beams to transmit commands to the projector. It doesn't require any cable connections.


IQ S: Abbreviation for Intelligent Scaling. It can also be called Resizing. It is a relatively new term used in data video projection. The projector recalculates the image size if the display board of the computer supplies a resolution that doesn't match that of the projector. The new image size is calculated so that the display quality remains optimal.


Kensington Lock: The Kensington Lock is a universal security system, which is often used for data video projectors, notebooks and laptops. It consists of a steel cable with a lock, which is passed around an immovable object and then inserted into a corresponding interface of the product to be secured.


Keystone Correction: See Electronic Keystone Correction and Optical Keystone Correction.


LCD: Abbreviation for Liquid Crystal Display. The LCD constitutes the heart of many data video projectors. Described in simple terms, it is a system consisting of thin glass plates with a layer of liquid crystals between them. All the points in this layer can be individually controlled with the aid of electric conductors. The precision of the control determines the quality of the projected image.


Luma / Lumen: This is the common unit of measurement for image brightness. It is usually determined using the rules of the ANSI standard.


Magnify: A term for a data video projection function by which specific image areas can be magnified using a remote control or external control unit.


Micro Lenses: Several manufacturers fit the LCDs with a system of micro lenses to increase the luminous efficiency of data video projection. This is sometimes called Micro Lens Array.


Motor Zoom: The image size can be varied via a remote control so that the user does not have to adjust the lense manually.


Multi Standard: Compatibility with several video standards.


Noise: Describes unwanted parasitic signals, which are created when other signals are wrongly interpolated as light signals.


NTP: NTP Abbreviation of New Tip Placement. It is a new type of lamp, which is particularly powerful, yet consumes less energy than traditional lamps. This lamp is used for data video projectors.


NTSC: Abbreviation for National Television Standards Committee. It is a common video standard used in the USA and in Asian countries and has 525 lines.


Optical Keystone Correction: If the presentation device projects upwards at an angle to the screen (not at right angles), the image is distorted in a trapezium shape. Projectors with optical keystone correction distort the image by following up or tracking the lense. The optical axis is reoriented. See Electronic Keystone Correction and Keystone Correction.


OSD: Abbreviation for On-Screen Display. Also called Menu Assistance. The image parameters of a data video projector can be set using a menu window.


PAL: Abbreviation for Phase Alternate Line. It is an analogue video standard with 625 lines, which is primarily used in Europe and Australia.


PAL Plus: Compatible method that combines high image quality with the capacity to transmit digital sound.


PCMCIA: Abbreviation for Personal Computer Memory Card Interface Adapter, a PC memory card interface.


Pixel Datarate: See Bandwidth.


Plug & Play: A term that is also popular in data video projection. Plug &Play projectors communicate directly with the computer connected to them and synchronise themselves automatically. The user connects the cables and switches the appliances on but nothing more is required before they are ready for presentation.


Polysilicon Technology: This is a process used to manufacture LCDs that enables a high resolution despite a particularly small design.


Power Focussing: Adjustment of image definition via a remote control.

Resizing: A data video projection function in which the projector automatically calculates the resolutions of connected signal sources that do not equate to the original resolution of the projector. The aim is to achieve a display that fills the maximum possible display screen area and yet maintain full display quality.


Resolution: Digital images are made up of a number of individual points or dots, which are called pixels and the number of pixels varies depending on the graphic card and software. Resolution is given in number of pixels in the formulation: Width x Height. For example, the SVGA standard provides 800 pixels across the width of the display screen and 600 along its height, which would be shown as 800 x 600.


RGB: Abbreviated form of additive colour mixture (Red, Green, Blue). Data video projectors use the RGB colour model and make up all colours from the primary colours red, green and blue.


RS 232C: Abbreviation for Recommended Standard 232-C. An interface that is used for serial data transmission. Modern data video projectors can be integrated in larger systems and operated via an external control unit. This control unit is connected to the RS232C interface of the projector.


Saturation: The strength or intensity of colour of an image or shade.


SECAM: Abbreviation for Sequentiel Couleur avec Mémoire (Sequential Colour with Memory). This video standard with 625 lines is used in France and in several former Soviet Union countries.


SHP lamp: Abbreviation for Super High Performance. It is a new type of metal vapour lamp that is used in data video projectors. SHP lamps produce a lot of light but consume little energy and provide a colour temperature similar to that of daylight.


SVGA: Abbreviation for Super Video Graphics Adapter or Super VGA. Display screen standard with a resolution of 800 x 600 pixels.


S-VHS: Abbreviation of Super Video Home System. Video standard that achieves a high video quality. It separates brightness and colour signals.


SXGA: Abbreviation of Super eXtended Graphics Array. Display screen standard with a resolution of 1,280 x 1,024 pixels. A standard, which above all can be found where Computer Aided Design (or CAD) is used.


Synchronisation: This term is used in data video projection to describe the fine adjustment of the projector to the data signals of computers and video source.


Tracking: Tracking is a sub-function of AutoScan or AutoSync, as used by data video projectors. The width of the projected image is tuned in the range of the tracking to obtain the best noise-free display possible.


UHB / UHP: UHB Abbreviation of Ultra High Brightness, UHP for Ultra High Pressure. This is a modern type of lamp that is particularly powerful, yet consumes little energy. This lamp is increasingly being used for data video projectors.


USB: Abbreviation for Universal Serial Bus, a standard interface for many personal computers. Hardware components are automatically detected and configured by the computer and are therefore ready for use immediately.


UXGA: Abbreviation for Ultra extended Graphics Array. Display screen standard with a resolution of maximum 1,600 x 1,200 pixels.


Variable Focus Objective: Objective or lens system, whose variable range is used not to change the image size but instead to focus the projected image.


Vertical Frequency: This frequency is measured in Hz. It gives the number of images that can be triggered per second. Also called bandwidth. Data video projectors use their own vertical frequency. The details given in the brochures therefore refer to the signal frequencies of computers/video sources that can be converted by the projector.


VGA: Abbreviation for Video Graphics Adapter or Video Graphics Array. Display screen standard with a resolution of 720 x 400 pixels in text mode and 640 x 480 pixels in graphic mode.


Workstation: Fast, extremely powerful computer based on one or several processors. Workstations usually serve to deal with tasks that require particularly intensive computing.


XGA: Abbreviation for Extended Video Graphics Adapter. A display screen standard with a resolution of maximum 1,024 x 768 pixels. It is currently the most common business standard.


YCC: A colour system developed by Kodak for the photo compact disc. YCC codes brightness (luminance) and colour (chrominance) separately.


Zoom: This is an lense that enables variable adjustment of the image size for a given distance. Many data video projectors are already equipped with motor zoom.